Weather in Janów

History

In the last quarter of the sixteenth century, south-western ends of Lubelskie voivodeship were among the least urbanized areas of Małopolska.

The factors which hindered settling and management of the land were an enormous forest consisted of Sandomierz Forest and Janów Forests in the north-east, covering the area of the San river and partly the Biłgoraj Plains, as well as numerous wetlands. The development  of the feudal manorial economy of the Polish Republic was slowly changing the situation for better at the end of the sixteenth century.  

Due to the increased demand for corn, which excess could be easily transported to Gdańsk on navigable rivers, the development accelerated. There was also a great demand for forest products during that period caused by the direction of settlement in Sandomierz Forest. The settlement in the Forest between 14th and 16th centuries "went" mainly in the south of the Sandomierz Valley. There were better soil, more significant elevations of wetlands and the composition of this part of the forest, which, thanks to numerous deciduous trees and undergrowth, allowed livestock grazing and facilitated land clearing and cultivation. In the seventeenth century, the colonization of the forest was closely related to forest management, float trees, burning of coal and bog ore, potash and grease smoking and the demand for honey and wax.

Deforestation facilitated the introduction of farming and the establishment of new settlements next to the old ones, such as Biała, Dzwola, which were first mentioned in written sources in 1245, or Kocudza (1377) and Godziszów (1451). An important factor in choosing the location of Janów was to create a centre for local goods of Zamoyski Ordination. In addition to the factors listed,  the development of trade and roads also contributed to the creation of the city. Biała village was crossed by a road from Turobin to Goraj and to Zawichost by the Vistula River, and in the mid-seventeenth century merchants going from Zamość to Sandomierz used the road through Szczebrzeszyn, Kocudza, Janów and Zaklików. Perhaps, the factors mentioned above contributed to the decision to built a city in that area by Katarzyna Zamoyska (from the Ostrogski family).

The origins of Biała town

The origins of Biała (that is how people initially called Janów) are well known thanks to the content of the foundation right, which copy preserved to our times. The privilege was issued by the office of King Władysław IV in Warsaw, July 21, 1640. The town received Magdeburg city rights, and with the receipt of municipal law, the city was endowed with the crest of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The city was given the privilege to organize eight fairs a year and weekly markets. Janów was located on the land of Biała village. The south west area from Biała village, situated on the left bank of the river of the same name (Biała), was selected for the future city. Therefore, the town was of the same name as the village. The area selected for the construction of the city was situated between two distinct geographical regions: Lublin highlands and Sandomierz Basin. The newly formed city was definitely not characterized by peace and humility. Forty-two preserved "Articles", issued because of conflicts between the inhabitants of the city and the peasants of Biała, intended for Janów on August 25, 1642, evidenced the situation of those times. The founder of the city, Katarzyna, for the sake of her city, its development and the security of the citizens, entrusted her attorneys and made them "commissioners" to develop "Articles" for all types of crimes and offences committed ​​in Janów. There is also another very important issue which concerns the "Articles", and its the change of the name Biała into Janów. In this document, the first time a new name was used. The name of the city Janów comes from the name Jan. Perhaps, this way, in connection with the birth of Katarzyna's son in 1627, the founder wanted to celebrate the event by creating a city name after her son, or it was the name in honour of the first ordinate – Jan.

Janów city

From the very beginning Janów city was a private property of Zamość ordination and in that way it changed its owners every time the ordinate was different. While thinking of all the owners of the city, it is impossible not to mention the founder of the ordination, the first ordinate – Jan Zamoyski, a chancellor and a great commander-in-chief. His role in creation of Janów is even much bigger as it was he who, in 1595, became the owner of Goraj goods, among which there was Biała village. Nevertheless, it is Katarzyna Ostrogska, the founder of the city, who can be said to be the real owner of Janów. Her ancestors were great princes of Ostrogski family, who was one of the oldest and the most prominent family in the Polish Republic. Katarzyna's father, Aleksander, the governor of Volhynia, after his death, he left an enormous fortune for his three daughters:  Zofia, Katarzyna and Anna Alojza. Tomasz, Jan Zamoyski's only son, was interested in one of the rich young ladies – Katarzyna. They got married on March 1, 1620, in Jezuit church in Jarosław. They were married until January 8,1638 when Tomasz, the second ordinate, died at the age of 44. After his death, Katarzyna did not married again. She died in autumn, 1642. She had three children – two daughters and a son. The oldest daughter, Gryzelda Konstancja, married prince Jeremi Wisniowiecki, the second – Joanna Barbara, married Aleksander Koniecpolski, the governor of Sandomierz, and the son – Jan 'Sobiepan' Zamoyski married  Maria Kazimiera d`Arquien, later wife of King Jan III Sobieski.

After the death of Katarzyna, the ordination was taken by her only son - Jan. In 1648, Janów was destroyed by the troops of Chmielnicki. Four years later the inhabitants died of plague. In order to help the city increase from the damage, in 1652, Jan 'Sobiepan' Zamoyski allowed the Jews to settle in the city and practice their craft. In 1660, the Dominicans were brought to Janów and they got a church and a monastery funded by the ordination. Prior to 1661, a Jewish community became quite large. The death of the third childless ordinate in 1665 was the reason of the end of the commander-in-chief's great family and family conflicts. The parliamentary resolution of 1674, and the occurrence of all Lublin nobility resolved the matter of succession in favour of a representative of the descendant of Zamoyski family, Marcin. The acquisition of ordination by Marcin took also benefits to Janów. This is confirmed by preserved documents issued by Marcin, which marked the city limits and the level of taxes. He also let the people produce and sell vodka, beer and honey. In the second half of the seventeenth century, Janów had about a thousand of inhabitants. In the middle of the eighteenth century, the city was destroyed by fire three times (1740, 1753, 1754). Especially, the last one caused a lot of damage - the Jewish community alone lost 60 houses  and buildings (including a synagogue).

17th century 

In the second half of the eighteenth century, the city had a population of more than two thousand people. The townspeople were focused on crafts, trade and agriculture. There were butchers, blacksmiths, tailors, people weaving and making pottery, clothiers, shoemakers, coopers, furriers and bakers. During the first partition of Poland in 1772, Janów was under the resign of Austria. In 1776, as a result of agreement between the Republic of Austria and the Polish Republic, the city was back in the Polish borders. Under the partition treaty of 1795, Janów came under Austrian rule again. With the entry of Austrian troops, the inhabitants of Janów were repressed because during the Insurrection the ordination imposed on them the obligation to provide cloth for the military. Shortly after this event, people experienced a disaster again. In 1804, Janów was almost completely burnt. The fire destroyed 71 buildings. Despite the help of ordination some people left the city. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the ordination brought several clothiers from Silesia and Germany who settled on pasture ground where a colony, Sukiennia, was built for them. Consequently, there was a rapid development of the clothes industry. Unfortunately, it was short-lived, because after the November Uprising, the borders with Russia were closed. What is more, it is need to mention a very important event which put the city on the leading position out of 16 towns of Zamość region.

District town

After the establishment of the Polish Kingdom, Janów belonged to Zamość district, which consisted mostly of Zamoyski goods with the counties: Zamość, Tarnogród, the western part of Tomaszów and Janów called Kraśnik. The seat of the authorities of Zamość region was Janów. When the great Prince Konstanty took power over the Kingdom, he demanded Zamość fortress to be commissioned exclusively for the use of the troops and as a penitentiary. Therefore, the office of the district, the Court of Criminal Police and a prison had to be removed from the building. The ordination suggested Janów as a new district town, which was situated thereabout in the middle of the district. The authorities accepted the project and they began to move offices to Janów from 1817. Thanks to the moving which lasted until 1827, New Town was built where administrative and residential buildings were located. The new market was the place where a monument in honour of Tadeusz Kościuszko was built (1818) and the city park, one of the first public walking gardens in the Polish Kingdom, was opened (about 1820).

In 1834, Janów was divided into three parts: the Old Town, New Town and the suburb Zaolszyna. In 1841, a regimental Orthodox church was built for the Russian troops which stationed in the region. In the mid-nineteenth century, the main streets and the market were paved, the river was regulated and a sawmill and a brickyard were built. The population reached about 3.5 thousand. In 1860, there were 2 hotels, 4 inns, a pharmacy, 12 pubs and an elementary school. After the period of decline, drapery revived. There were two cloth factories. In 1863, there were 72 clothiers in Janów.

After the January Uprising Janów and other cities of the Kingdom experienced severe sanctions. A lot of residents of the city and the surrounding area were sent to Siberia for fighting in the units of the uprising.  The Dominicans also suffered the consequences. The emperors troops occupied their buildings and the monastery was closed down. After the administrative reform Janów became the seat of the county in 1867. The city  became developing with the beginning of the second half of the nineteenth century – a match factory, a tannery and a hospital were built. In 1880, a fire burned 100 buildings. At the beginning of the twentieth century the number of inhabitants was about 8,000.

The period of war and occupation

During World War I Janów was the battle field for three times. Armies fought in the area. In 1922, a fire burned half of the town - 823 buildings. Since 1925 there was a rapid growth: new streets were paved, seven bridges were built, the building of the school was completed and the electricity in the streets, in schools and offices was carried out. In 1934 there were a power station, 2 sawmills, 2 mills, a brewery, 2 printers and a slaughterhouse. Moreover, 339 people crafted, a hospital and a shelter for elderly were open. Some associations and organizations were active: the Shooting Club, Dramatic Society, the Society of Singers 'Echo', Intelligentsia Club and some libraries.

The occupation was for Janów and its inhabitants a tragic experience. In September 1939, as a result of bombing the city three times, about 350 people were killed, and 85% of the city was burned. Mass arrests in 1940-1941, and mass executions of Jews were the symptoms of terror. In 1940 a labour camp, existing until 1943, was founded. In July, 26, 1944, Janów was occupied by the Soviet army and the troops of the People's Army.

Post-war years

In April 1945, the troops of Home Army freed women, the participants of the Warsaw Uprising, prisoned in Janów by the Polish secret police. After war, Janów was greatly damaged. The population decreased almost a half. In 1956, Janów became again the seat of the county. However, the gradual development of the city began only in the late sixties. A lot of factories were opened: a machine factory, the factory producing clothing 'Gracja', the Institute of Forest Products 'Forest', etc. The creation of jobs led to a rapid increase of inhabitants and the spatial development of the city (the districts: Centre, East, Development, South, Zaolszyna). A new hospital, a nursery school, two kindergartens, a stadium and a new post were opened. In 1996, a second parish was founded: St. Jadwiga.

As a result of the new administrative division in 1975, Janów Lubelski became part of Tarnobrzeg voivodeship. In 1999, the city returned to Lublin region and became the seat of the county.

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